World Thrombosis Day: Healthy Living And Control of Risk Factors, The Key To Preventing It

Thrombosis is normally classified according to where in the body the clots occur: there are venous and arterial. This year the world day is ...

Thrombosis is normally classified according to where in the body the clots occur: there are venous and arterial. This year the world day is dedicated to the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular accident (CVA).

Within the framework of World Thrombosis Day that is commemorated today and that this year is dedicated to the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular accident (CVA), specialists urged awareness and care of those cardiovascular risk factors that potentially contribute to the formation of thrombi, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity and leading a sedentary life, among others.

Strokes can be caused by vascular obstructions (ischemic) or vessel rupture (hemorrhagic). Approximately 85% are due to cerebral ischemia (Ischemic stroke) due to the interruption of cerebral arterial or venous flow caused by the formation of clots (thrombosis) that occur in the intra- or extracranial arteries of the brain, or by the migration of clots from the heart (cardioembolism), or by the migration of clots from the deep venous system of the legs or arms, called paradoxical embolisms.

Currently, stroke is one of the main causes of combined morbidity and mortality worldwide, affecting 15 million people per year, while it is known to be the first cause of disability in adults, the second cause of dementia and the Statistics show that one in four adults will have a stroke during their lifetime.

“According to projections at the national level from the data of the Population Epidemiological Study on Cerebrovascular Accidents (EstEPA) in Argentina, 2% of the population over 40 years of age lives with sequelae of a previous stroke, which represents more than 340 thousand people; In addition, each year there are between 50,000 and 60,000 new cases”, stated Dr. Sebastián Ameriso, Head of the Department of Neurology and Head of the Comprehensive Center for Vascular Neurology at the FLENI Institute.

The EstEPA study is the only one of its kind in Latin America: it evaluated the prevalence, incidence, burden of disease, and mortality of stroke in our country for 6 years. It was carried out jointly between FLENI, FINEP, ADERID and the Municipality of General Villegas through the Hospital and the Directorate of Education, UNNOBA and the General Villegas Medical Circle.

In addition, other outstanding results of the research are the confirmation of hypertension as the main cerebrovascular risk factor (associated in 88% of cases), the high frequency of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with stroke (51%) and dyslipidemias (46%).

“A stroke does not end with treatment in the acute phase. Currently, 70% of people who have suffered from it have sequelae that affect their quality of life. In addition, the risk of recurrence is high, mainly in the days after treatment. The improvement of the sequelae generally occurs with patience, effort and rehabilitation”, concluded Dr. Ameriso.

“This pathology, which is more frequent than is thought, has severe consequences for the patient, his family and society due to the functional sequelae, which range from motor alterations, with motility disorders in the arms and legs, to cognitive deterioration. and difficulty in the expression of the oral or written word, among others”, said Dr. Miguel Castro Ríos, hematologist, coordinator of the Board of Directors of the CAHT Group and former president of the Argentine Society of Hematology.

Reduce risk factors

As with all diseases that cause clot formation, prevention is based on reducing cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and a sedentary lifestyle.

Dr. Dolores Puente, a hematologist, member of the Organizing Committee for World Thrombosis Day in Argentina of the CAHT Group, pointed out: "Thanks to continuous education, it was possible to prevent heart attacks, where the appearance of chest pain motivates the consultation that leads to treatment of coronary heart disease Unfortunately there is not the same awareness regarding the appearance of transient neurological symptoms (transient ischemic attack –TIA), such as difficulty moving an arm or leg or facial muscles, disorders in the speech, headache, vertigo, dizziness or visual disorders that, if diagnosed early and an attempt is made to dissolve the clot (thrombosis) in the first four hours, prevent definitive ischemia with the irreversible death of brain neurons,hence the statement that 'Time is brain'”.

With the slogan of the International Society of Hemostasis and Thrombosis (ISTH for its acronym in English) "Life must flow", the Argentine Cooperative Group of Hemostasis and Thrombosis (CAHT) incorporated into the prevention campaign called: "Time is brain ".

The specialists were in charge of insisting that in order to lead a healthy life it is essential to learn to have a healthy body and that this is achieved with a correct diet, with frequent physical activity, with correction of excess weight, arterial hypertension and diabetes. That is why it is necessary to have periodic medical check-ups and to attend the consultation when unusual symptoms appear.

“To achieve this prevention objective, education must be multidisciplinary, with the participation of all medical and non-medical specialties, such as sports trainers and physiotherapists, among others”, added Dr. Castro Ríos.

Types of thrombosis

Thromboses are usually classified according to where in the body they occur. There are venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis, depending on whether the clot develops in a vein or in an artery. Both originate through similar physiological mechanisms influenced by acquired or inherited risk factors.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a condition in which blood clots most often form in the deep veins of the leg, known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and can travel in the circulation and lodge in the lungs, known as pulmonary embolism (PE).

For its part, arterial thromboembolism generally occurs due to the accumulation of fatty or calcium deposits (plaque) on the walls of the arteries. When that plaque breaks off, it can create a thrombus that travels through the bloodstream until it stops and obstructs the normal flow of blood. If that happens in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, it can cause a heart attack and if it happens in the arteries of the brain, a stroke.



Media Yuan: World Thrombosis Day: Healthy Living And Control of Risk Factors, The Key To Preventing It
World Thrombosis Day: Healthy Living And Control of Risk Factors, The Key To Preventing It
Media Yuan
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